Surgical Anesthetic and Analgesic Pharmaceutical Raw Materials Medetomidine CAS 86347-14-0
Quick Details for Medetomidine
Product Name: Medetomidine
Alias : medetomidine;Medetomidine [inn:ban];(rac)-4-[1-(2,3-dimethylphenyl)ethyl]-3H-imidazole;4-(1-(2,3-Dimethylphenyl)ethyl)-1H-imidazole;Medetomidina [spanish];Medetomidinum;Medetomidine;DoMtor;Medetomidina
MP：151.5 – 152.5ºC
BP：381.9ºC at 760 mmHg
Medetomidine is a synthetic drug used as both a surgical anesthetic and analgesic. It is often used as the hydrochloride salt, medetomidine hydrochloride, a crystalline white solid. It is an α2 adrenergic agonist that can be administered as an intravenous drug solution with sterile water. The drug has been developed by Orion Pharma. It is currently approved for dogs in the United States, and distributed in the United States by Pfizer Animal Health and by Novartis Animal Health in Canada under the product name Domitor. Other alpha-two agonists used in veterinary medicine include xylazine and detomidine, but their use is less common in small animal surgery. The marketed product is a racemic mixture of two stereoisomers; dexmedetomidine is the isomer with more useful effects, and is now marketed as Dexdomitor.
In veterinary medicine
It is often used in combinations with opioids (butorphanol, buprenorphine etc.) as premedication (before a general anesthetic) in healthy cats and dogs. It can be given by intramuscular injection (IM), subcutaneous injection (SC) or intravenous injection (IV). When delivered intravenously, a significantly decreased dose is used. Some authors suggest a sublingual route is also effective. It is not recommended for diabetics, it is contraindicated in patients with cardiac disease. Due to its potent sedative effects it is commonly used in more aggressive animals, where a drug combination with a lesser effect (such as acepromazine plus an opioid, or an opioid plus a benzodiazepine) would not allow the administration of the inductive agent without risk to the veterinarian. As such the use of alpha-two agonists is only recommended in healthy animals.
It is sometimes used in combination with butorphanol and ketamine (given IM) to produce general anasthesia for short periods in healthy but fractious felines that will not allow an intravenous induction agent to be given. It provides a good degree of muscle relaxation, an important factor in ketamine based anethesia protocols.
Medetomidine has also been used in combination with morphine (or methadone), lidocaine and ketamine in constant rate infusion analgesia in canines. It is often used in so called microdoses for this analgesic effect.
It is thought that this family of drugs has a degree of analgesic action, though this is, in comparison to the sedative effect, minor.
In marine paint
Medetomidine can be used as an antifouling substance in marine paint. It is mainly effective against barnacles, but has also shown effect on other hard fouling like tube worms. When the barnacle cyprid larva encounters a surface containing medetomidine the molecule interacts with the octopamine receptor in the larva. This makes the larva legs start kicking and it cannot settle to the painted surface. When the larva swims away from the surface, the effect disappears (reversible effect). The larva regain its function and can settle somewhere else.